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Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Welcome to the Section on Viral Gene Regulation

Selected Publications

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Iwatani, Y., Chan, D.S.B., Wang, F., Maynard, K.S., Sugiura, W., Gronenborn, A.M., Rouzina, I., Williams, M.C., Musier-Forsyth, K., and Levin, J.G. (2007) Deaminase-independent inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcription by APOBEC3G. Nucleic Acids Res. 35: 7096-7108. PDF Supplement: PDF

Wu, T., Heilman-Miller, S.L., and Levin, J.G. (2007) Effects of nucleic acid local structure and magnesium ions on minus-strand transfer mediated by the nucleic acid chaperone activity of HIV-1nucleocapsid protein. Nucleic Acids Res. 35: 3974-3987. PDF

Tang, S., Ablan, S., Dueck, M., Ayala-López, W., Soto, B., Caplan, M., Nagashima, K. Hewlett, I.K., Freed, E.O., and Levin, J.G. (2007) A second-site suppressor significantly improves the defective phenotype imposed by mutation of an aromatic residue in the N-terminal domain of the HIV-1 capsid protein. Virology 359: 105-115. PDF

Iwatani, Y., Takeuchi, H., Strebel, K., and Levin, J.G. (2006) Biochemical activities of highly purified, catalytically active APOBEC3G: correlation with antiviral effect. J. Virol. 80:5992-6002. PDF

Opi, S., Takeuchi, H., Kao, S., Khan, M.A., Miyagi, E., Goila-Gaur, R., Iwatani, Y., Levin, J.G., and Strebel, K. (2006) Monomeric APOBEC3G is catalytically active and has antiviral activity. J. Virol. 80:4673-4682. PDF

Levin, J.G., Guo, J., Rouzina, I., and Musier-Forsyth, K. (2005) Nucleic acid chaperone activity of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein: Critical role in reverse transcription and molecular mechanism. (Review) Prog. Nucleic Acids Res. Mol. Biol. 80:217-286. PDF

Heilman-Miller, S.L., Wu, T., and Levin, J.G. (2004) Alteration of nucleic acid structure and stability modulates the efficiency of minus-strand transfer mediated by the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein. J. Biol. Chem. 279:44154-44165. PDF

Tang, S., Murakami, T., Cheng, N., Steven, A.C., Freed, E.O., and Levin, J.G. (2003) Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 N-terminal capsid mutants containing cores with abnormally high levels of capsid protein and virtually no reverse transcriptase. J. Virol. 77:12592-12602. PDF

Post, K., Guo, J., Howard, K. J., Powell, M.D., Miller, J.T., Hizi, A., Le Grice, S.F.J., and Levin, J.G. (2003) Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 reverse transcriptase activity in model systems that mimic steps in reverse transcription. J. Virol. 77:7623-7634. PDF

Iwatani, Y., Rosen, A.E., Guo, J., Musier-Forsyth, K., and Levin, J.G. (2003) Efficient initiation of HIV-1 reverse transcription in vitro: requirement for RNA sequences downstream of the primer binding site abrogated by nucleocapsid protein-dependent primer-template interactions. J. Biol. Chem. 278:14185-14195. PDF

Hong, M.K., Harbron, E.J., O’Connor, D.B., Guo, J., Barbara, P.F., Levin, J.G., and Musier-Forsyth, K. (2003) Nucleic acid conformational changes essential for HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein-mediated inhibition of self-priming in minus-strand transfer. J. Mol.Biol. 325:1-10. PDF

Guo, J., Wu, T., Kane, B.F., Johnson, D.G., Henderson, L.E., Gorelick, R.J., and Levin, J.G. (2002) Subtle alterations of the native zinc finger structures have dramatic effects on the nucleic acid chaperone activity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein. J. Virol. 76:4370-4378. PDF

Tang, S., Murakami, T., Agresta, B.E., Campbell, S., Freed, E.O., and Levin, J.G. (2001) Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 N-terminal capsid mutants that exhibit aberrant core morphology and are blocked in initiation of reverse transcription in infected cells. J. Virol. 75:9357-9366. PDF

Johnson, P.E., Turner, R.B., Wu, Z.R., Hairston, L., Guo, J., Levin, J.G., and Summers, M.F. (2000) A mechanism for plus-strand transfer enhancement by the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein during reverse transcription. Biochemistry 39:9084-9091. PDF

Guo, J., Wu, T., Anderson, J., Kane, B.F., Johnson, D.J., Gorelick, R.J., Henderson, L.E., and Levin, J.G. (2000) Zinc finger structures in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein facilitate efficient minus- and plus-strand transfer. J. Virol. 74:8980-8988. PDF

Wu, T., Guo, J., Bess, J., Henderson, L.E., and Levin, J.G. (1999) Molecular requirements for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 plus-strand transfer: analysis in reconstituted and endogenous reverse transcription systems. J. Virol. 73:4794-4805. PDF

Rein, A., Henderson, L.E., and Levin, J.G. (1998) Nucleic-acid-chaperone activity of retroviral nucleocapsid proteins: significance for viral replication. Trends Biochem. Sci. 23:297-301. PDF

Guo, J., Wu, T., Bess, J., Henderson, L.E., and Levin, J.G. (1998) Actinomycin D inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 minus-strand transfer in in vitro and endogenous reverse transcriptase assays. J. Virol. 72:6716-6724. PDF

Guo, J., Henderson, L.E., Bess, J., Kane, B., and Levin, J.G. (1997) Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein promotes efficient strand transfer and specific viral DNA synthesis by inhibiting TAR dependent self priming from minus-strand strong-stop DNA. J. Virol. 71:5178-5188. PDF

Feng, Y-X., Copeland, T.D., Henderson, L.E., Gorelick, R.J., Bosche, W.J., Levin, J.G., and Rein, A. (1996) HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein induces "maturation" of dimeric retroviral RNA in vitro. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93(15): 7577–7581. PDF